Student Organizations. Discover more listed here

Social Work Honor Society

The School of Social Work requests nominations from students and faculty for determining those graduates in the B.S.W., M.S.W. and Ph.D. programs who have demonstrated leadership and service to the school, the university and the community. Phi Alpha is a highly selective honor society for social work graduate and undergraduate students with over 225 chapters in the United States. We invite you to join us even if you are not an accepted member of the program yet. Our officers serve as mentors for students who intend to apply for the program, as well as for students recently accepted to major status.

See the Dean’s List policy for specific GPA and credit-hour requirements. Phi Alpha honor cords, which can be worn at graduation may also be purchased upon joining the chapter. Centenary University offers a leading Bachelor of Science in Social Work degree that is accredited by the Council on Social Work Education.

Phi Alpha is run by the student-elected officers and has its own budget. A faculty advisor is assigned to Phi Alpha and participates in regular meetings and Society activities. This organization targets the unique stressors that students within CHHS face in pursuit of their education and preparation to work in the field of health and human services. By incorporating an interdisciplinary approach, this organization encourages students to work collaboratively with other disciplines in the field of human services.

The Executive Committee shall consist of the President, Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, Chair of the standing committee, and the faculty advisor. Forward to the Treasurer of the Executive Council a report certified by the faculty advisor covering the Chapter year not later than June 30 th. The report is to include the financial statement, and a list detailing the dates and meetings held during the year.

The purpose of Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideas. The Purpose of Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond between social work students and promote humanitarian goals. The purpose of Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among student of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals.

Students meeting the eligibility criteria are notified by the current chapter President and are officially welcomed into Phi Alpha in an annual Induction Ceremony. All SSW students are automatically members of SWSO per our constitution. However, to show the University we are a viable organization, we ask that you formally Request to Join SWSO throughOrgSync, the ASU’s Formal Organization Site. NASW AZ website that is specifically catered to the needs of the student body.

Pupil Organizations. Continue reading listed here

Phi Alpha Honor Society

Phi Alpha Honor Society serves to provide a closer bond among students of social work, and to promote humanitarian goals and ideals. The purpose of the Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideas. The Purpose of Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals.

Every student who has been admitted to the BSW and MSW program is automatically a member. Other students, however, who have an interest in social work are welcome to participate. WSWO focuses on social and civic activities that support individuals and groups in the community. The School of Social Work is home to several active student organizations that will help you meet like-minded Lumberjacks, get career advice, attend conferences and participate in a variety of social events and community service projects. Phi Kappa Phi is a national honor society promoting the pursuit of excellence in all academic fields.

Phi Alpha’s mission is to promote education and camaraderie among Social Work students and to maintain humanitarian goals and ideas. Student has completed at least one term of 12 semester hours of course work in the MSW program. Must be a junior or senior already admitted into the BSW program and completed a minimum of 9 hours in Social Work at USI. Dues are $5 per semester or $7 in the Fall to pay for the whole year! The money collected from dues helps us put on all our events and fun activities for you all! We will be collecting dues at the first meeting or you can give it to any officer.

Members who attend a Phi Alpha sponsored philanthropy event are NOT required to submit a Philanthropy Hours Approval Form. All hours and requirement must be met in order for the MSW graduates’ name to be identified in the university graduation book. Complete and submit documentation on time, every Fall & Spring semester, of 4 hours of philanthropy/community services.

The NABSW LSU Student Chapter is an all-inclusive organization. This group seeks opportunities to engage in service activities that benefit communities of color. As a College of Social Work student, you can enjoy the benefits of being part of a major university in a capital city.

Eligible students are invited to join the Chi Delta Chapter and participate in the Initiation Ceremony which is held at the beginning of each semester. Initiates take the pledge of membership, sign the membership book, and are presented with a certificate of lifetime membership, ribbon, and button from the National Office. Submit documentation forms for attendance and hours completed by the deadline each semester. As permitted by the National Office, the Chi Delta Chapter has established higher eligibility requirements than the minimum requirements of the National Phi Alpha Honor Society.

University student Organizations. Read more below

What Is The Alpha Delta Mu Honor Society?

The purpose of Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideas. The Purpose of Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond between social work students and promote humanitarian goals. The purpose of Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among student of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals.

Please return the completed application to the Social Work office. The Ohio University Chapter elects officers and plans an induction ceremony each spring. Must have a GPA of 3.75 in completed 300 and 400 level social work courses. The Mu Delta Chapter of the Phi Alpha Honor Society for Social Workers was established at the University of Southern Indiana March 1, 2004, by Dr. Kathy Elpers and Dr. Thomas Bordelon. The national honor society was formalized with the adoption of a constitution in 1962.

Centenary University has been helping students achieve their personal and professional goals for over 150 years. As the primary educational and cultural resource for northwest New Jersey, Centenary offers a wide range of undergraduate, graduate and adult programs. To improve and further the goals and objectives of social work by stimulating research in preparation for a career in social work. To recognize and encourage scholastic achievement among the students who are majoring in social work. Join Rutgers School of Social Work for a virtual orientation program for incoming and continuing BASW students enrolled in Camden, Mays Landing and New Brunswick on September 8, 2021 at 12pm. Additional information, including a meeting invitation and link, will be sent to students’ email.

See the Dean’s List policy for specific GPA and credit-hour requirements. Phi Alpha honor cords, which can be worn at graduation may also be purchased upon joining the chapter. Centenary University offers a leading Bachelor of Science in Social Work degree that is accredited by the Council on Social Work Education.

The School of Social Work requests nominations from students and faculty for determining those graduates in the B.S.W., M.S.W. and Ph.D. programs who have demonstrated leadership and service to the school, the university and the community. Phi Alpha is a highly selective honor society for social work graduate and undergraduate students with over 225 chapters in the United States. We invite you to join us even if you are not an accepted member of the program yet. Our officers serve as mentors for students who intend to apply for the program, as well as for students recently accepted to major status.

Alumni events offer you many opportunities to strengthen your connection to Dominican College and your fellow graduates. Champions for Chargers is an annual-giving program designed to support the Dominican College athletics program and all of our student-athletes. Our highest achieving students intensify and enrich their undergraduate educations by joining the Honors Program.

College student Organizations. Discover more here

School Of Social Work < Temple University

Every student who has been admitted to the BSW and MSW program is automatically a member. Other students, however, who have an interest in social work are welcome to participate. WSWO focuses on social and civic activities that support individuals and groups in the community. The School of Social Work is home to several active student organizations that will help you meet like-minded Lumberjacks, get career advice, attend conferences and participate in a variety of social events and community service projects. Phi Kappa Phi is a national honor society promoting the pursuit of excellence in all academic fields.

Phi Alpha Honor Society serves to provide a closer bond among students of social work, and to promote humanitarian goals and ideals. The purpose of the Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideas. The Purpose of Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals.

Turn in your completed application, along with a copy of your transcript and a one-time fee of $60, to the Department of Social Work & Gerontology. Curriculum in the College of Education is designed to be student-centered and intellectually challenging, while preparing students through field and internship experiences. Centenary delivers “big university” opportunities in a classic small-college setting where everyone on campus is focused on our students’ success.

Senior Social Work majors with an overall grade point average of 3.0 on 4.0 scale are eligible to join the Prairie View A&M University Lambda Nu Chapter of Phi Alpha International Honor Society. Phi Alpha is a national social work honor society for undergraduate social work majors, faculty, and local practitioners. The purposes of Phi Alpha are to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals. Phi Alpha fosters high standards of academic excellence and training for social workers. The purposes of Phi Alpha National Social Work Honor Society are to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals. Phi Alpha fosters high standards of education for social workers and invites into membership, those who have attained excellence in scholarship and achievement in social work.

SSWO sponsors the annual social work conference, organizes fund-raisers for human service organizations, invites guest speakers, and puts together many fun celebrations. Students are strongly encouraged to join SSWO and consider a leadership role within the organization. Designed for undergraduate and master’s students who have excelled in social work scholarship to form bonds and promote the profession’s values. The Kappa Psi chapter at the University of South Carolina received its charter in 2007 and is a great opportunity to be involved in the College of Social Work and receive recognition for your scholastic achievements. Membership requirements are a minimum of 15 completed credit hours in the Bachelor of Social Work upper division or Master of Social Work degree program with a 3.5 or better cumulative grade point average.

Phi Alpha’s mission is to promote education and camaraderie among Social Work students and to maintain humanitarian goals and ideas. Student has completed at least one term of 12 semester hours of course work in the MSW program. Must be a junior or senior already admitted into the BSW program and completed a minimum of 9 hours in Social Work at USI. Dues are $5 per semester or $7 in the Fall to pay for the whole year! The money collected from dues helps us put on all our events and fun activities for you all! We will be collecting dues at the first meeting or you can give it to any officer.

Undergraduate Organizations. Learn more listed here

Social Sciences

If for any reason you are not eligible, this money will be refunded immediately. The Association of College Honor Societies founded in 1925, is the nation’s only certifying agency for college and university honor societies. ACHS sets standards for organizational excellence and for scholastic eligibility for the various categories of membership. Early and regular contact with the advisor can be extremely helpful. The advisor is a knowledgeable person with whom students may discuss issues of concern in relation to university regulations, course selection, and career paths.

Alumni events offer you many opportunities to strengthen your connection to Dominican College and your fellow graduates. Champions for Chargers is an annual-giving program designed to support the Dominican College athletics program and all of our student-athletes. Our highest achieving students intensify and enrich their undergraduate educations by joining the Honors Program.

The purpose of this organization is to advance excellence in social work practice and to encourage, stimulate, and maintain scholarship of the individual members in all fields, particularly in social work. For current activities, see the bulletin board in the lobby on the fifth floor of Ritter Hall Annex. The Phi Alpha Honor Society offers high-achieving Weber State social work students opportunities to create close bonds with their peers while promoting humanitarian goals and ideals. Phi Alpha Theta is an American honor society for undergraduate and graduate students and professors of history.

Undergraduate students in the School of Social Work may apply up to 12 credits of military science courses at the 3000 and 4000 levels in Aerospace Studies , Military Science , and Naval Science towards their degree as free electives. These credits cannot count as Social Work credit towards the degree. Students at Temple University’s School of Social Work are part of a diverse community. The school offers an opportunity to be in class with diverse students who have had different life experiences and who represent varied points of view.

Please return the completed application to the Social Work office. The Ohio University Chapter elects officers and plans an induction ceremony each spring. Must have a GPA of 3.75 in completed 300 and 400 level social work courses. The Mu Delta Chapter of the Phi Alpha Honor Society for Social Workers was established at the University of Southern Indiana March 1, 2004, by Dr. Kathy Elpers and Dr. Thomas Bordelon. The national honor society was formalized with the adoption of a constitution in 1962.

Centenary University has been helping students achieve their personal and professional goals for over 150 years. As the primary educational and cultural resource for northwest New Jersey, Centenary offers a wide range of undergraduate, graduate and adult programs. To improve and further the goals and objectives of social work by stimulating research in preparation for a career in social work. To recognize and encourage scholastic achievement among the students who are majoring in social work. Join Rutgers School of Social Work for a virtual orientation program for incoming and continuing BASW students enrolled in Camden, Mays Landing and New Brunswick on September 8, 2021 at 12pm. Additional information, including a meeting invitation and link, will be sent to students’ email.

Student Organizations. Learn more the following

Campus Experience

The faculty advisor shall forward to the Treasurer of the Executive Council the national initiation fee for each student and faculty initiate prior to his or her acceptance into membership. The Ohio University Student Social Work Association is a student organization with the purpose to serve, educate, and promote activism in the field of social welfare and prepare students for the professional field of social work. In 1977, the first chapter of the Alpha Delta Mu Honor Society was incorporated at Morgan State University in Maryland. The society quickly expanded to other post-secondary schools nationwide to promote excellence in social work education and professional social work practices. The honor society’s motto is “Advocate of the People,” which encompasses the organization’s dedication to supporting and improving the lives of diverse individuals and families wherever they live. To recognize and promote scholastic achievement among students and faculty involved in the undergraduate or graduate social work program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Turn in your completed application, along with a copy of your transcript and a one-time fee of $60, to the Department of Social Work & Gerontology. Curriculum in the College of Education is designed to be student-centered and intellectually challenging, while preparing students through field and internship experiences. Centenary delivers “big university” opportunities in a classic small-college setting where everyone on campus is focused on our students’ success.

SSWO sponsors the annual social work conference, organizes fund-raisers for human service organizations, invites guest speakers, and puts together many fun celebrations. Students are strongly encouraged to join SSWO and consider a leadership role within the organization. Designed for undergraduate and master’s students who have excelled in social work scholarship to form bonds and promote the profession’s values. The Kappa Psi chapter at the University of South Carolina received its charter in 2007 and is a great opportunity to be involved in the College of Social Work and receive recognition for your scholastic achievements. Membership requirements are a minimum of 15 completed credit hours in the Bachelor of Social Work upper division or Master of Social Work degree program with a 3.5 or better cumulative grade point average.

We also sponsor activities and community projects throughout the year and organize student trips to attend area social work conferences. Active members are currently enrolled in CSWE-accredited social work programs and have completed at least six semester hours of classes in the field. They may be junior or senior undergraduates with a minimum 3.0 GPA or graduate candidates with a minimum 3.5 GPA. Founded in 1952, the Council on Social Work Education is the national association representing social work education in the United States. Its members include over 800 accredited baccalaureate and master’s degree social work programs, as well as individual social work educators, practitioners, and agencies dedicated to advancing quality social work education.

The Centenary University School of Professional Studies offers degree programs at two locations, Parsippany and Edison, as well as online and at corporate sites throughout New Jersey. Social work graduate student Genevieve Marshall G’17 was the keynote speaker. Medallions were awarded by social work senior Juliana Leach ’17, social work graduate student Anthony Traver G’17 and Bette Brown Thoreck, director of the baccalaureate social work program and Phi Alpha faculty advisor.

Senior Social Work majors with an overall grade point average of 3.0 on 4.0 scale are eligible to join the Prairie View A&M University Lambda Nu Chapter of Phi Alpha International Honor Society. Phi Alpha is a national social work honor society for undergraduate social work majors, faculty, and local practitioners. The purposes of Phi Alpha are to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals. Phi Alpha fosters high standards of academic excellence and training for social workers. The purposes of Phi Alpha National Social Work Honor Society are to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals. Phi Alpha fosters high standards of education for social workers and invites into membership, those who have attained excellence in scholarship and achievement in social work.

College student Organizations. Read more in this article

School Of Social Work Student Organizations

SWA is open to all undergraduate students, regardless of major. International Connections – MOSAIC Club brings together undergraduate and graduate students from all degree programs and academic disciplines who would like to meet other international students. The organization aims to promote a closer bond among international students and to promote cultural and ethnic diversity on all four Arizona State University campuses.Follow us on Facebook. The Social Work Department has an active student organization named NASW-SO, or National Association of Social Workers, Student Organization. Students may join the organization as soon as they declare social work or pre-social work as their major.

Undergraduate students in the School of Social Work may apply up to 12 credits of military science courses at the 3000 and 4000 levels in Aerospace Studies , Military Science , and Naval Science towards their degree as free electives. These credits cannot count as Social Work credit towards the degree. Students at Temple University’s School of Social Work are part of a diverse community. The school offers an opportunity to be in class with diverse students who have had different life experiences and who represent varied points of view.

If for any reason you are not eligible, this money will be refunded immediately. The Association of College Honor Societies founded in 1925, is the nation’s only certifying agency for college and university honor societies. ACHS sets standards for organizational excellence and for scholastic eligibility for the various categories of membership. Early and regular contact with the advisor can be extremely helpful. The advisor is a knowledgeable person with whom students may discuss issues of concern in relation to university regulations, course selection, and career paths.

Public service that aids the dissemination of knowledge and evidence-based strategies and that aids the responsiveness of the school to the needs of constituents through collaborations and partnerships with communities, agencies, and organizations. It defines the successes of students in UNK’s College of Fine Arts and Humanities, whether in the humanities, the liberal arts, or fine arts. Drawing on our expertise and research, we serve the diverse needs of the community. Our faculty is dedicated to enabling students to use scientific approaches to discovery and understanding.

Phi Alpha offers membership to social work students, faculty, and practitioners. The National Council is the policy-making body and meets each year at the time and place of the annual program meeting of the Council of Social Work Education . Each chapter has one voting representative on the national council.

The purpose of this organization is to advance excellence in social work practice and to encourage, stimulate, and maintain scholarship of the individual members in all fields, particularly in social work. For current activities, see the bulletin board in the lobby on the fifth floor of Ritter Hall Annex. The Phi Alpha Honor Society offers high-achieving Weber State social work students opportunities to create close bonds with their peers while promoting humanitarian goals and ideals. Phi Alpha Theta is an American honor society for undergraduate and graduate students and professors of history.

Undergraduate Organizations. Read more right here

Welcome To The Bachelor Of Arts In Social Work

The faculty advisor shall forward to the Treasurer of the Executive Council the national initiation fee for each student and faculty initiate prior to his or her acceptance into membership. The Ohio University Student Social Work Association is a student organization with the purpose to serve, educate, and promote activism in the field of social welfare and prepare students for the professional field of social work. In 1977, the first chapter of the Alpha Delta Mu Honor Society was incorporated at Morgan State University in Maryland. The society quickly expanded to other post-secondary schools nationwide to promote excellence in social work education and professional social work practices. The honor society’s motto is “Advocate of the People,” which encompasses the organization’s dedication to supporting and improving the lives of diverse individuals and families wherever they live. To recognize and promote scholastic achievement among students and faculty involved in the undergraduate or graduate social work program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks.

We also sponsor activities and community projects throughout the year and organize student trips to attend area social work conferences. Active members are currently enrolled in CSWE-accredited social work programs and have completed at least six semester hours of classes in the field. They may be junior or senior undergraduates with a minimum 3.0 GPA or graduate candidates with a minimum 3.5 GPA. Founded in 1952, the Council on Social Work Education is the national association representing social work education in the United States. Its members include over 800 accredited baccalaureate and master’s degree social work programs, as well as individual social work educators, practitioners, and agencies dedicated to advancing quality social work education.

He taught at VCU for 30 years and was awarded the rank of Professor Emeritus upon his retirement. The Dr. Robert Green Just Research Award is given to Ph.D. and M.S.W. research poster winners at the annual VCU School of Social Work Research Symposium. In order to qualify as an active member of the organization, each member must attend at least two different Chapter meetings per semester, and participate in at least one Chapter activity or event per semester. The Executive Committee with the approval of the membership may grant Honorary Membership to a maximum of two individuals per year who have made outstanding contributions to the field of social work.

Members receive a certificate of membership and have the opportunity to purchase a medallion. You also have the opportunity to purchase graduation accessories through the Phi Alpha website on your own time. Tucson and online students are encouraged to apply to be members. Initiation is generally the first chapter meeting of each semester and counts toward the meeting attendance requirement. Current Chi Delta members, MU faculty & staff, and members from other chapters are invited to attend.

A Master’s of Social Work committee sets the criteria for excellence. The purpose of Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals. The purpose of the Phi Alpha Honor Society is to provide a closer bond among students of social work and promote humanitarian goals and ideals. In 1999, the School of Social Work chartered a local chapter, Theta Phi, of Phi Alpha, the national social work honor society. The mission of this organization is to promote high standards of education for social work and to invite into membership those who have attained excellence of scholarship and distinction of achievement as students of social work. Both graduate and undergraduate students ranking in the top 35% of their program will receive an invitation to apply for the honor society.

The Centenary University School of Professional Studies offers degree programs at two locations, Parsippany and Edison, as well as online and at corporate sites throughout New Jersey. Social work graduate student Genevieve Marshall G’17 was the keynote speaker. Medallions were awarded by social work senior Juliana Leach ’17, social work graduate student Anthony Traver G’17 and Bette Brown Thoreck, director of the baccalaureate social work program and Phi Alpha faculty advisor.

College student Organizations. Learn more in this article

Professional Organizations

Phi Alpha offers membership to social work students, faculty, and practitioners. The National Council is the policy-making body and meets each year at the time and place of the annual program meeting of the Council of Social Work Education . Each chapter has one voting representative on the national council.

This chapter of Phi Alpha shall be affiliated with the organization known as Phi Alpha Honor Society and to its National Council. The Constitution, membership and program shall be consistent with the Constitution and Statutes of the national organization. All Phi Alpha members are required to participate in the Phi Alpha community service project organized by the Phi Alpha officers and members to maintain membership. Each issue provides practical articles on social work students, social work ethics, field placement, practice issues, practice specialties, technology in social work, book reviews, and more. In addition to the SSW Student Collective, students can choose to participate in the following social work organizations at SSW.

SWA is open to all undergraduate students, regardless of major. International Connections – MOSAIC Club brings together undergraduate and graduate students from all degree programs and academic disciplines who would like to meet other international students. The organization aims to promote a closer bond among international students and to promote cultural and ethnic diversity on all four Arizona State University campuses.Follow us on Facebook. The Social Work Department has an active student organization named NASW-SO, or National Association of Social Workers, Student Organization. Students may join the organization as soon as they declare social work or pre-social work as their major.

Temple students involved in LSWO have advocated for quality bilingual/bicultural services to Latinos and other oppressed communities. The Alternative Break Student Leadership Team leads the charge of the Alternative Break program! These student leaders coordinate trip experiences, organize fundraisers, and advertise information about this unique program to the campus community. With their unselfish leadership qualities, all team members work together and bring a diverse set of talents to engage the campus in learning, service, and leadership in communities across the globe. To recognize those professional social workers and others whose service, contributions and leadership are held in esteem.

In addition to classroom learning, SSW offers a number of ways in which students can come together as a community. Demonstrate professional use of self in their practice with effective communication skills, self-awareness, inclusion of supervision and consultation, and the creation of positive change within organizations and service delivery systems. Research and scholarship to advance applied knowledge and generate evidence-based strategies to resolve problems occurring between people and their social environments at local, state, national, and global levels. Student representatives may bring items of concern to the committee and/or request that an item be added to the faculty department meeting for further discussion.

Public service that aids the dissemination of knowledge and evidence-based strategies and that aids the responsiveness of the school to the needs of constituents through collaborations and partnerships with communities, agencies, and organizations. It defines the successes of students in UNK’s College of Fine Arts and Humanities, whether in the humanities, the liberal arts, or fine arts. Drawing on our expertise and research, we serve the diverse needs of the community. Our faculty is dedicated to enabling students to use scientific approaches to discovery and understanding.

Simply what does adviser administration mean?

Political Representation Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy

There is a limit to the extent of country which can advantageously be governed, or even whose government can be conveniently superintended from a single centre. There are vast countries so governed; but they, or at least their distant provinces, are in general deplorably ill administered, and it is only when the inhabitants are almost savages that they could not manage their affairs better separately. This obstacle does not exist in the case of Italy, the size of which does not come up to that of several very efficiently governed single states in past and present times. The question then is, whether the different parts of the nation require to be governed in a way so essentially different that it is not probable the same Legislature, and the same ministry or administrative body, will give satisfaction to them all. Unless this be the case, which is a question of fact, it is better for them to be completely united. That a totally different system of laws and very different administrative institutions may exist in two portions of a country without being any obstacle to legislative unity, is proved by the case of England and Scotland.

It would be a great mistake to make the discussion turn on sentimentalities about skulking or cowardice. Secrecy is justifiable in many cases, imperative in some, and it is not cowardice to seek protection against evils which are honestly avoidable. Nor can it be reasonably maintained that no cases are conceivable in which secret voting is preferable to public; but I must contend that these cases, in affairs of a political character, are the exception, not the rule. A good despotism means a government in which, so far as depends on the despot, there is no positive oppression by officers of state, but in which all the collective interests of the people are managed for them, all the thinking that has relation to collective interests done for them, and in which their minds are formed by, and consenting to, this abdication of their own energies. Leaving things to the government, like leaving them to Providence, is synonymous with caring nothing about them, and accepting their results, when disagreeable, as visitations of Nature.

All these suggestions are open to much discussion in the detail, and to objections which it is of no use to anticipate. The time is not come for giving to such plans a practical shape, nor should I wish to be bound by the particular proposals which I have made. But it is to me evident that in this direction lies the true ideal of representative government; and that to work towards it by the best practical contrivances which can be found is the path of real political improvement. But a popular assembly is still less fitted to administer, or to dictate in detail to those who have the charge of administration. Every branch of public administration is a skilled business, which has its own peculiar principles and traditional rules, many of them not even known in any effectual way, except to those who have at some time had a hand in carrying on the business, and none of them likely to be duly appreciated by persons not practically acquainted with the department.

But if this be his state of mind; if his will does not go along with the limitation which the law imposes, and he desires to make a direct choice, he can do so notwithstanding the law. He has only to choose as elector a known partisan of the candidate he prefers, or some one who will pledge himself to vote for that candidate. And this is so much the natural working of election by two stages, that, except in a condition of complete political indifference, it can scarcely be expected to act otherwise. It is in this way that the election of the President of the United States practically operates. Nominally, the election is indirect; the population at large does not vote for the President; it votes for electors who choose the President.

Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word representative government. The system of deliberative democracy is a mix between a majority ruled system and a consensus-based system. It allows for representative democracies or direct democracies to coexist with its system of governance, providing an initial advantage.

This is not done conclusively by any partial renewal, even where, as in some of the French constitutions, a large fraction—a fifth or a third—go out at once. The polling places should be so numerous as to be within easy reach of every voter, and no expenses of conveyance, at the cost of the candidate, should be tolerated under any pretext. The infirm, and they only on medical certificate, should have the right of claiming suitable carriage conveyance at the cost of the state or of the locality.